India is a main destination for surrogacy. Indian surrogates have been increasingly popular with intended parents in industrialized nations because of the relatively low cost. Clinics charge patients between $10,000 and $28,000 for the complete package, including fertilization, the surrogate’s fee, and delivery of the baby at a hospital. Including the costs of flight tickets, medical procedures and hotels, it comes to roughly a third of the price compared with going through the procedure in the UK.
Surrogacy in India is of low cost and the laws are flexible. In 2008, the Supreme Court of India in the Manji’s case (Japanese Baby) has held that commercial surrogacy is permitted in India. That has increased the international confidence in surrogacy arrangements in India. As of 2014, however, surrogacy by homosexual couples and single parents was banned.
There is an upcoming Assisted Reproductive Technology Bill, aimed at regulating the surrogacy business. It may increase parent confidence in clinics by eliminating dubious practitioners, and in this way stimulate the practice.
Liberal legislation makes Russia attractive for those looking for techniques not available in their countries. Intended parents come there for oocyte donation, because of advanced age or marital status (single women and single men), and when surrogacy is considered. Commercial gestational surrogacy is legal in Russia, being available to almost all adults willing to be parents. Foreigners have the same rights to assisted reproduction as Russian citizens. Within three days after the birth, the commissioning parents obtain a Russian birth certificate with both their names on it. Genetic relation to the child (in case of donation) is not a factor. On August 4, 2010, a Moscow court ruled that a single man who applied for gestational surrogacy (using donor eggs) could be listed on the birth certificate as the only parent of his son.
Surrogacy is legal in Ukraine. Only healthy women who have had children before can become surrogates. Surrogates in Ukraine have no parental rights over the child, as stated on Article 123 of the Family Code of Ukraine. Thus, a surrogate cannot refuse to hand the baby over if she changes her mind after birth. Only married couples can legally go through gestational surrogacy in Ukraine.
People come to the US for surrogacy procedures for the high quality of medical technology and care, as well as the high level of legal protections afforded through some US state courts to surrogacy contracts as compared to many other countries. Single men or male couples who face restrictions using IVF and surrogacy procedures in their home countries may travel to US states with favorable legal climates. The United States is occasionally sought as a location for surrogate mothers by couples seeking a green card in the U.S., since the resulting child can get birthright citizenship in the United States and can thereby apply for green cards for the parents when the child turns 21 years of age.